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Error-aware Design Procedure to Implement Energy-efficient Approximate Squaring Hardware

[ Vol. 10 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Merin Loukrakpam *, Ch. Lison Singh and Madhuchhanda Choudhury   Pages 471 - 477 ( 7 )

Abstract:


Background: In recent years, there has been a high demand for executing digital signal processing and machine learning applications on energy-constrained devices. Squaring is a vital arithmetic operation used in such applications. Hence, improving the energy efficiency of squaring is crucial.

Objective: In this paper, a novel approximation method based on piecewise linear segmentation of the square function is proposed.

Methods: Two-segment, four-segment and eight-segment accurate and energy-efficient 32-bit approximate designs for squaring were implemented using this method. The proposed 2-segment approximate squaring hardware showed 12.5% maximum relative error and delivered up to 55.6% energy saving when compared with state-of-the-art approximate multipliers used for squaring.

Results: The proposed 4-segment hardware achieved a maximum relative error of 3.13% with up to 46.5% energy saving.

Conclusion: The proposed 8-segment design emerged as the most accurate squaring hardware with a maximum relative error of 0.78%. The comparison also revealed that the 8-segment design is the most efficient design in terms of error-area-delay-power product.

Keywords:

Approximation, digital system, energy-efficiency, error-resilience, piecewise linear, squaring.

Affiliation:

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Assam, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Assam, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Assam

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