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Mixing of Graphite with X-ray Irradiated Water Towards the Exfoliation of Graphene Layers

[ Vol. 10 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Wipsar S.B. Dwandaru*, Buky W. Pratama, Rhyko I. Wisnuwijaya, Lia D. Parwati, Deni S. Khaerudini, Supardi and Suparno   Pages 548 - 556 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background: This study aims to study the mixing of graphite with water irradiated by X-ray (low energy gamma ray) towards the formation of graphene oxide (GO).

Methods: The graphite is obtained from Zinc-Carbon (ZnC) battery wastes. This is a simple alternative technique in synthesizing GO based on X-ray irradiation without involving additional chemicals. X-ray irradiation is conducted upon 10 ml of distilled water using 20 kV of X-ray with irradiation time variation of 3 and 4 h. The X-ray irradiation towards the distilled water causes radiolysis to occur in the water. The graphite solution consists of 0.6 gm of graphite in 100 ml of distilled water. The GO is formed by mixing the X-ray irradiated water with 5 drops of the graphite solution. The sample solutions obtained are shaken several times and left to settle for a night. The samples are then characterized using UV-Visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopies, and tunneling electron microscopy (TEM), whereas scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) characterization is done by coating the sample on glass slides.

Results: The UV-Vis characterization results show a red shift of absorbance peaks from 234.5 nm to 244.5 nm as the time of irradiation is increased. These peaks indicate the formation of GO in the samples. The FTIR characterization results indicate that there are functional groups of OH, C=C, and C-O in the samples, which also show the existence of GO. The SEM images show the surface morphology of the sample, which resembles smooth-quadrilateral lump of clays, and the EDX result shows that the sample is composed of 2.86%, 54.02%, 11.62%, 2.2%, 26.23%, and 3.06% of carbon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, silicon, and calcium atoms, respectively. The occurrence of carbon and oxygen atoms verifies further the formation of GO in the samples.

Conclusion: Finally, the TEM result shows few-layers of GO materials supported by the electron diffraction pattern showing hexagonal structure of the GO.

Keywords:

X-ray irradiation, water radiolysis, graphene oxide, graphite of ZnC battery, graphite, graphene oxide.

Affiliation:

Physics Education Department, Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Karangmalang Complex, Yogyakarta 55281, Physics Education Department, Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Karangmalang Complex, Yogyakarta 55281, Physics Education Department, Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Karangmalang Complex, Yogyakarta 55281, Physics Education Department, Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Karangmalang Complex, Yogyakarta 55281, Research Center for Physics LIPI, PUSPIPTEK Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314, Physics Education Department, Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Karangmalang Complex, Yogyakarta 55281, Physics Education Department, Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Karangmalang Complex, Yogyakarta 55281

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