Niloufar Choubdar* and Sara Avizheh Pages 228 - 247 ( 20 )
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia affecting over 46 million people, according to AD International. Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in developing nanomedicines. Using nanocarriers, the therapeutic compound could be delivered to the site of action where it gets accumulated. This accumulation, therefore, reduces the required doses for therapy. Alternatively, using nanocarriers decreases the side effects. Nanotechnology has had a great contribution in developing Drug Delivery Systems (DDS). These DDS could function as reservoirs for sustained drug release or control the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the drugs. In the current review, we have collected 38 original research articles using nanotechnology as DDS for the clinically used cholinesterase inhibitor drugs donepezil (DPZ), Rivastigmine (Riv), and galantamine (Gal) used for AD treatment from 2002 to 2017 from Scopus and PubMed databases. Regarding DDS used for DPZ, most of the research in recent years dealt with polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) including Poly-D, L-Lactide-Co-Glycolide (PLGA), and chitosans (CHs), then Liposomes (LPs), nanogels, and natural products, respectively. In terms of Riv most of the research performed was focused on polymeric NPs including PLGA, polylactic acid (PLA), Poly-Ε-Caprolactone (PCL), poly-alkyl-cyanoacrylates, CH, gelatin and then LPs. The highest application of NPs in regard to Gal was related to modified LPs and polymeric NPs. Polymeric NPs demonstrate safety, higher stability in biological fluids and against enzymatic metabolism, biocompatibility, bioavailability, and improved encapsulation efficacy. LPs, another major delivery system used, demonstrate biocompatibility, ease of surface modification, and amphiphilic nature.
Alzheimer's disease, nanomedicines, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, drug delivery systems, nanotechnology, nanocarrier.
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran