Ali Hasani* Pages 4 - 11 ( 8 )
By far the most important members of carbon-based materials family, are graphene, Carbon Nanotube (CNT) and Carbon Nanohorn (CNH). Thanks to their outstanding features and effective applications, have been broadly researched in recent times. Numerous ways have been proposed to synthesize graphene, CNT and CNH. This paper presents an overview of approaches to graphene, CNT and CNH synthesis, properties and applications. Most of the ways to create graphene is related to Hummer's method. Thanks to the exclusive electrical and thermal properties of graphene, it has been applied to build batteries, gas and vapor sensors, and elimination of numerous pollutants from water. Also, this review involves the conventional definition of the carbon nanotubes growth mechanism. Undoubtedly, an expert interpretation of nanotube growth at the atomic scale is one of the major challenges to improve nanotubes bulk synthesis procedure. In fact, a controlled growth may lead to get the ideal form of nanotube. Moreover, carbon nanohorn is a new member of single-graphene tubules family with a diameter of 3-6 nm and a length 35-45 nm. According to the latest reports, a new fluid including carbon nanohorns and ethylene glycol can be used for solar energy applications. Carbon nanohorns have an important role in increasing sunlight absorption as for the pure base fluid. Nanohorn spectral characteristics are far more interesting than those of amorphous carbon for the exclusive application. They can be used in important industries such as gas sensors, drug delivery, detecting some food borne contaminants.
Graphene, carbon nanotube, carbon nanohorn, synthesis, gas sensors, graphite.
Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102