Jothi Varghese* and Rudra Mohan Pages 428 - 436 ( 9 )
Background: Tissue engineering is a highly evolving field in periodontology which incorporates the use of cells, signalling molecules and scaffolds thereby creating a three dimensional microenvironment facilitating cellular growth and function for restoration of lost tissues due to periodontal disease. This review discusses the various types, ideal characteristics, properties and applications of potential scaffolds that can be used in periodontal regeneration with the help of principles of tissue engineering.
Methods: Research work pertaining to bioscaffolds for periodontal regeneration were selected using key words in major databases and internet sources.
Results: Studies related to various features of scaffold and its inherent properties were searched and analysed. Data were organized considering the sources of its origin and salient features of these inert matrices. Specific probe into the techniques and medium used for developing scaffolds were cited. Further, bioactive ceramic materials which are involved in stimulating cell proliferation, and bone tissue regeneration, which may also facilitate periodontal regeneration were mentioned. Likewise, few data linked to different types of biodegradable synthetic scaffolds and its advantages were considered. The progress of science in various fabrication techniques and newer advances using modern technology such as tissue engineering approaches, 3D printing and physical & chemical methods to enhance the physical properties are being used to make them more versatile for the application in the field of biomedical science.
Conclusion: In lieu of the available literature search and vast progress in material science, scaffolds construction for cellular regeneration requires wide exploration. Furthermore, when these scaffolds are placed at a particular site, it should be able to restore lost periodontal tissue. Also, the newer innovative technologies like the 3D version of biomimicking, nano/micro-based scaffolds displays potential for further extensive research and complete regeneration of periodontal tissues.
Bioscaffolds, periodontal regeneration, inflammatory process, bioresorbable collagen membranes, tooth loss, periodontal therapy.
Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Periodontology, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Periodontology, Manipal